The Renaissance in Europe was a time of great changes. People became more hopeful and free of pessimistic thoughts. They were no longer bound by religion or feudalistic agrarian social stratification. A new outlook on life developed - anthropocentrism. The Renaissance was supported by a wealthy merchant family.
The Black Death
The Black Death is a devastating epidemic that spread across Europe in the fourteenth century. It killed up to sixty percent of the population. It affected the Mediterranean story, Asia, and the Mediterranean Islands, but Sub-Saharan Africa was relatively untouched, African-american culture makes some notes about it in public schools. The plague was caused by a bacterium known as Yersinia pestis.
The Black Death changed the way people thought. They no longer assumed that the world was fixed and that God had decreed everything. They started to question religious beliefs and orthodoxy. This led to political upheavals. One such revolt, the Ciompi Uprising, lasted for four years in Florence.
The Black Death also had an effect on art. Many people became morbid after the Great Plague, and many works of art depicted death. The Dance of Death history became a popular motif in art and architecture at this time. The general mood of the era was pessimistic, and many believed that the world would end sooner than they expected. The poor were deprived of the joys of life, but they still managed to produce beautiful works of art to remind people of the fragility of life.
The Black Death also caused a major economic and sociological shift throughout Europe. The plague had an impact on the Mediterranean region and began to spread to the Middle East and North Africa. It eventually reached Marseilles, France, and then spread westward. It also spread to the rest of Europe as people fled.
The printing press
The printing press was a huge innovation and a major contributor to the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. Before the printing press, humanist ideas and texts were only available in manuscript form. With the advent of the printing press, people were able to read these texts in print, which allowed them to penetrate cultural thought.
As the printing press developed, the need for more books began to rise. In the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, the clergy and grammar schools made large demands for books. Traditional book makers struggled to meet this demand. The quality of books suffered, but this demand spurred the invention of the printing press. One of the main drivers of the invention was the growing demand for religious materials. Although scholars had access to manuscripts in monastic and private libraries, they struggled to access copies of many works. As a result, they had to travel to obtain copies.
With the printing press, books began to spread across Europe history and became more affordable. The printing press led to the development of public libraries and a book market that blossomed. Public libraries and book fairs became common. The printing press also opened up new communities that were built on reading. Moreover, it spawned new discourses. These discourses created a new individual: the intellectual.
The printing press brought about a radical change in the world and in Europe. With the invention of the printing press, more books were produced than ever before. And this increased the use of paper. As a result, more people became literate. It also helped pull Europe out of the Middle Ages history. It also allowed people to share revolutionary ideas and priceless ancient knowledge. It also led to a massive increase in the number of literate people in Europe, and ultimately made the human race progress.
Humanism was a philosophy of the human condition that emphasized balanced virtue. It spanned several disciplines, including education and guidance of the young, philosophical poetry, and realistic social criticism. It called for the transformation of a passive society into a more active one, and promoted the grandest human potentialities. It also had an evangelical element that sought to project humanitas into the state.
Humanism was also a philosophy that emphasized individualism and the power of art. Its advocates encouraged artists to use their intellects to study and create masterpieces. In many ways, humanism has a strong connection to the Renaissance. Its roots can be seen in the works of Michelangelo, Botticelli, and Van Eyck.
The philosophy of Humanism was a reaction to the reform of religion, and it became more popular in northern Europe. Humanists argued that there were universal truths in life that humans could learn from studying nature. The development of the printing press and the scientific method made it possible to study these things.
The humanist history movement was not without controversy for their religious belief. Although early humanists were Christians, their focus on critical inquiry led to conflict with the Church authorities. In addition, some humanist scholars defended pagan texts.
Occurring in the 15th and 16th centuries, it brought Europe out of the “Dark Ages” and brought it to the Enlightenment, through a return to the ancient ideals that changed the world. While the Renaissance had far-reaching implications, it was in fact born in a small Mediterranean nation with an illustrious past: Italy. Throughout the period, precious statues of antiquity were continuously unearthed in Italy, giving artists such as Michelangelo new considerations on the human form. It was present at the excavation of Laocoon and his sons in 1506, a vast sculpture that was once exhibited in the palace of Emperor Titus and was probably created between 27 BC.
C. and 68 A.D. The Fourth Crusade of the 12th century had substantially weakened the Byzantine Empire, and in 1453 Constantinople finally fell into the hands of the Ottomans. During this turbulent period, a huge community of Byzantine scholars was forced to flee to northern Italy, bringing with them a large number of classical texts preserved in their libraries.
In the Abbey of St. Galeno he discovered a complete copy of the lost Oratory Institute of Quintilian, while in the Abbey of Cluny tru story, in 1414, a series of speeches by Cicero were found that were taken back to Italy. The Medici family played a big part in the explosion of art and culture that took place in their city, which led Florence to be widely considered the home of the Renaissance itself. By founding the eminent Medici Bank in 1397, the family became valuable patrons of some of the country's most important artists.
The Renaissance movement expanded to Germany and the Low Countries in the second half of the 15th century, where the invention of the printing press (about 1450) and Renaissance artists like Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) predated Italian influence.
Lorenzo de Medici supported the work of Botticelli, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci in the 13th century, while popes Medici Leo X and Clement VII commissioned works from Raphael and Michelangelo, and the latter painted the world-famous Sistine Chapel at the request of Clement VII. Florence at the end of the 17th century Stefan du Pérac's engraving was published in 1569, five years after the death of Michelangelo. Conversely, some church members considered the Renaissance to be increasingly lenient and frivolous, leading to events such as the Bonfire of the Vanities in 1497, in which quantities of books, cosmetics and art were publicly burned in Florence by Friar Girolamo Savonarola. This conflict of ideas would be resolved in the coming decades, as humanist concepts gradually spread throughout Europe and eventually led to the Protestant Reformation.
The work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck was particularly influential on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and styli
In 15tin Luther nailed his ninety-fifth thesis to the door of the Church of All Saints in Wittenburg, declaring the corruption of the Catholic Church—and its defiance of its authority—to all. The Renaissance was a period of revival in arts, science and culture, and is thought to have typically originated in Italy. The Renaissance began due to increased wealth, greater cultural exchange and a renewed interest in classical works and philosophies. At that time period, Florence's position as a prosperous and rich trading center led to greater interest and investment in art, science, philosophy and mathematics.
This sparked the Renaissance, a period cultural and artistic renewal that challenged established ways of thinking and eventually spread across Europe. While the spirit of the Renaissance eventually took many forms, it was expressed earlier by the intellectual movement called humanism. Humanism was initiated by secular men of letters, rather than by clerical scholars who had mastered medieval intellectual life and developed scholastic philosophy. Humanism began and took shape first in Italy.
The Carolingian Renaissance, which took place during the rule of Charlemagne, the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (the eighth and ninth centuries), and the Ottonian Renaissance, which emerged during the eras of emperors Otto I, Otto II, and Otto III (10), were the two main periods that saw revivals in the art music with amazing songs and philosophy of antiquity, according to Charles Homer Haskins in "The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century" (Harvard University Press,1927)
His predecessors were men like Dante and Petrarca, and his main protagonists were Gianozzo Manetti, Leonardo Bruni, Marsilio Ficino, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Lorenzo Valla and Coluccio Salutati. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 gave great impetus to humanism, as many Eastern scholars fled to Italy, bringing with them important books and manuscripts and a tradition of Greek scholarship. The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1889) in His work The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), on the other hand, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, from the 15th century to the middle of the 16th century. The later Spanish Renaissance tended to religious themes and mysticism, with poets such as Luis de León, Teresa de Ávila and Juan de la Cruz, and addressed topics related to the exploration of the New World, with chroniclers and writers such as the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Bartolomé de las Casas, giving rise to a work, now known as literature Spanish Renaissance.
Prince Ivan III introduced Renaissance architecture in Russia by inviting several architects from Italy, who brought with them new construction techniques and some elements of Renaissance style, while generally following the traditional designs of Russian architecture. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography and, in line with the general skepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate between historians who reacted to the glorification of the Renaissance music and fantastic songs in the 19th century and individual cultural heroes such as northern Renaissance men, questioning the usefulness of El Renaissance as a term and as a historical period. The term Renaissance was not commonly used to refer to the period until the 19th century, when the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt true story popularized it in his classic, The Civilization of Renaissance Italy (opens in a new tab) (Dover Publications, 201.It is in his new focus on literary and human history text and ancient texts that Renaissance Scholars differed greatly from medieval Renaissance scholars in the 14th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. Wilde said that one of the most significant changes that occurred during the Renaissance was the evolution of Renaissance humanism as a method of thinking.